Physical World, Measurements, Units & dimensions:
Units & Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis & its applications, error in measurements, significant figures.
Kinematics: Scalars & vectors, representation of vectors in 3D, dot & cross product & their applications, elementary differential & integral calculus, time-velocity & relevant graphs, equations of motion with uniform acceleration.
Laws of motion: Newtonâ€™s laws of motion, using algebra & calculus, inertial & non inertial frames, conservation of linear momentum with applications, elastic & inelastic collisions, impulse centripetal force, banking of roads, relative velocity, projectile motion & uniform circular motion Work, power, energy: Work, power, energy Work, work-energy theorem, power, energy, work done by constant & variable forces, PE & KE, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and nonconservative forces, PE of a spring, Motion of centre of mass, connected systems.
Gravitation: Keplerâ€™s laws, (only statement) universal law of gravitation, acceleration due to gravity (g), variation of g, gravitational potential & PE, escape velocity, orbital velocity of satellites, geostationary orbits.
Friction: Centre of mass of two-particle system, motion of connected system, torque, equilibrium of rigid bodies, moments of inertia of simple geometric bodies (2D) [without derivation] conservation of angular momentum, friction and laws of friction.
Surface tension: Surface energy, phenomena involving surface tension, angle of contact, capillary rise.
Bulk properties of matter: Elasticity, Hookeâ€™s law, Youngâ€™s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, rigidity modulus, Poissonâ€™s ratio elastic potential energy. Fluid pressure: Pressure due to a fluid column, buoyancy, Pascalâ€™s law, effect of gravity on fluid pressure.
Viscosity: Coefficient of viscosity, streamline & turbulent motion, Reynoldâ€™s number, Stokeâ€™s law, terminal velocity, Bernoulliâ€™s theorem. Heat & Thermal Physics: Heat & temperature, thermal expansion of solids. liquids & gases, ideal gas laws, isothermal & adiabatic processes; anomalous expansion of water & its effects, sp. heat capacity, Cp, Cv, calorimetry; change of state, specific latent heat capacity. Heat transfer; conduction, thermal and thermometric conductivity, convection & radiation, Newton’s law of cooling, Stefan’s law.
Kinetic theory of gases: Equation of state of a perfect gas, kinetic theory of gases, assumptions in Kinetic theory of gases, concept of pressure. & temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (introductory ideas) & application to specific heats of gases; mean free path, Avogadro number.
Thermodynamics: Thermal equilibrium (Zeroth law of thermodynamics), heat, work & internal energy. 1st law of thermodynamics, isothermal & adiabatic processes, 2nd law of thermodynamics, reversible & irreversible processes.
Oscillations & Waves: Periodic motion â€“ time period, frequency, time-displacement eqation, Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) & its equation; phase; SHM in different sytems, restoring force & force const, energy in S.H.M.- KE & PE, free, forced & damped oscillations (introductory ideas), resonance wave motion, equation for progressive wave, longitudinal & transverse waves, sound waves, Newtonâ€™s formula & Laplaceâ€™s correction, factors affecting the velocity of sound in air, principles of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings & organ pipes, fundamental mode, harmonics &overtones, beats, Doppler effect.
Current Electricity:Electric current, & conductor, drift velocity’ mobility & their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, Ohmic and non-Ohmic conductors, electrical energy & power, carbon resistors, colour codes, combination of resistances, temperature dependence of resistances, electric cell, emf and internal resistance of an electric cell, pd, combination of cells, secondary cells, (introductory) Kirchoffâ€™s laws of electrical network, simple applications, principle of Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge and potentiometer and their uses, thermoelectricity; Seebeck effect; Peltier effect, thermo emf.
Electrostatics: Conservation of electric charges, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle & continuous charge distribution. Electric field, & potential due to a point charge & distribution of charges, electric field lines electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field; electric flux, Gauss’ theorem & its simple applications, conductors & insulators, free charges & bound charges inside a conductor; dielectrics & electric polarisation, capacitors & capacitance, combination of capacitors in series & in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with & without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.
Magnetic effect of current: Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment, Biot – Savart law & its application to current carrying circular loop; Ampere’s law & its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids; force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic & electric fields, cyclotron frequency; force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors– definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity & conversion to ammeter & voltmeter, Inter-conversion of voltmeter & ammeter & change of their ranges.
Electromagnetic induction & alternating current: Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf & current; Lenz’s Law, eddy currents, self & mutual induction, alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current and voltage; reactance and impedance; LR & CR circuits, phase lag & lead, LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.
Magnetics: Current loop as a magnetic dipole & its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole bar magnet along its axis & perpendicular to its axis, torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field & its magnetic elements. para-, dia- & ferro- magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets & the factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.
Electromagnetic waves: Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only), transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic spectrum, applications of the waves from the different parts of the spectrum
Atomic Physics: Alpha-particle scattering expt Rutherford’s nuclear atom model of atom; Bohr model of hydrogen atom, energy levels in a hydrogen atom, hydrogen spectrum, continuous & characteristic xrays.
Nuclear Physics: Composition & size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones, radioactivity – alpha, beta & gamma particles/ rays & their properties; radioactive decay law; massenergy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon & its variation with mass number; nuclear fission & fusion.
Solid state Electronics: Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators & semiconductors; semiconductor diode â€“ I-V characteristics in forward & reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell & Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator, junction transistor (BJT), transistor action, characteristics of a BJT, BJT as an amplifier (CE configuration) & oscillator; logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND & NOR).
Optics I (Ray optics): Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection & its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula.
Newton’s relation: Displacement method to find position of images (conjugate points) Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, combination of a lens & a mirror refraction and dispersion of light through a prism; optical instruments, human eye, image formation & accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia) using lenses, microscopes & astronomical telescopes (reflecting & refracting) & their magnifying powers.
Optics II (Wave Optics): Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky, elementary idea of Raman effect; wave
Optics: wave front & Huygens’ principle, reflection & refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection & refraction using Huygens’ principle Interference, Young’s double slit experiment & expression for fringe width, coherent sources, Fraunhoffer diffraction due to a single slit, Particle nature of light & wave particle dualism: Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenardâ€™s observations; Einsteinâ€™s photoelectric equation – particle nature of light, matter waves; wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation.